Volcano Climbing
 
 
The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts  and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes.  It is sometimes called the Circum-Pacific belt or the Circum-Pacific seismic belt.

Lesser Sunda Islands is part of Pacific Ring of Fire. There are 22 volcanoes of them. The rows of small islands in Lesser Sunda are the home of various ethnic groups. Each has their own cultural pattern, which suits with their volcanic surroundings. The following program is composed in such a way that the participants will explore not only the volcanoes but to also meet the people around them.

Volcanoes of Flores and adjacent islands:

FLORES
  1. Riang Kotang (200 m) is fumarole field, located near the eastern tip of Flores island, Indoeesia. Two fumarole areas are found along the saddle foot of the volcano. Hot springs appear along the southwest side of the Oka Bay and Hadang Bay on the west coast.
  2. Lewotobi (1.703 m) Lewotobi is a twin stratovolcano, composed of the Lewotobi Laki- laki and Lewotobi Perempuan located in the southeastern part of the island of Flores. These volcanoes have at least 19 historic eruptions between 1675 and 1991. Most eruptions are from the Lewotobi Laki-laki vent. Only two eruptions have been from the Lewotobi Perempuan vent. Most eruptions are explosive and moderate to moderate large in size.
  3. Ilimuda (1.100 m) is a stratovolcano located in the eastern part of the island of Flores. It lies north of Lewotobi volcano and west of the Konga Bay.
  4. Lereboleng (1.117 m) is a complex volcano located in the eastern part of the island of Flores, erupted from the Burak vent in 1873, 1876, and 1881.
  5. Batu Tara (748 m) stratavolcano is a small isolated island in the Flores Sea. Vegetations covers the flanks of Batu Tara. The only historical eruption was occurred in 1852 with explosions and lava flows.  
  6. Egon (1.703 m) located in the southeastern part of the island of Flores, is a stratovolcano with a single confirmed eruption in 1907. An eruption from 1888-1889 is reported but not confirmed.
  7. Rokatenda  (875 m)   is a stratovolcano mountain located in Palue Island, north of Flores Island. It is the highest region in the island with a height of 875 metres. The biggest eruption occurred on 4 August � 25 September 1928 which was due to the tsunami and earthquake. The population of Palu'e island was 266 people at that period. The last eruption occurred on 23 March 1985 whereby the ashes spread 2 km away although no casualty was recorded. On 16 January 2005, there was sign of eruption, causing the mountain to be placed under alert status.  
  8. Kelimutu (1.639 m) is a volcano in central Flores Island containing three summit crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwu Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly blue. Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored, respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling probably fed by subaqueous fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound 1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated two km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively three km to the north and two km to the south.
  9. Ndete Napu (750 m)  is a fumarole field in the center of Flores island, Indonesia. It is located along the Lowomelo river valley and contains mudpots and high-pressure water fountains. The field is listed as an active volcano based on its thermal activity.  
  10. Mount Sokoria  (1.500 m) is a 8 km wide caldera to the northeast of  Mount Iya in Flores, Indonesia. The southern caldera wall is irregular and a small fumarolic area is found in the western flanks which contains several vents and eject geyser-like water column. No historical records of its activity are available from this volcanic caldera.
  11. Mount Ia (637 m) is a stratovolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores,  south of the city of Ende. The last erruption was in 1969.
  12. Ebulobo (2.124 m)  is a stratovolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores. It is one of the eversmoking volcanoe in Flores which dominates the landscape of central Flores.
  13. Inierie (2.245 m) is a stratovolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores, overlooking the Savu Sea. It is the highest volcano on the island.
  14. Inielika (1.559 m)  is a volcano located in the central part of the island of Flores, north of the city of Bajawa.
  15. Ranaka (2.100 m), Poco Ranaka is a volcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores, Indonesia. A new lava dome, named Anak Ranakah (the child of Ranakah) was formed there in 1987.
  16. Poco Leok (1.675 m) is a volcano in the western side of Flores island. The volcano was considered to be an irregular shaped of caldera, but evidence about caldera is problematical. However, Pocok Leok is listed in the active volcano list of Indonesia because of four fumarole activities in the area.
  17. Wae Sano (903 m) is a volcanic caldera located in the western part of the island of Flores.

ADONARA ISLAND

Ile Boleng (1.659 m) is stratovolcano is located at the southeast end of Adonara Island. The top of the volcano was created by several summit craters. The first eruption was recorded in 1885. The activity is classified as moderate.

LEMBATA ISLAND
  1. Ile labalekan (1.018 m) is a stratovolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Lembata.
  2. Ile Werung (1.018 m) is a complexvolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Lembata.
  3. Lewotolo or Ile Ape (1.423 m) is a stratovolcano located in the north-central part of the island of Lembata.
PANTAR ISLAND

Mount Sirung (862 m)  is an active complex volcano located on Pantar Island. The crater rim can be reached by an easy hike from the village of Kakamauta. Inside the crater is a large sulphurous crater lake and several active steam vents. The volcano last erupted in 1970, and regular gas and clastic eruptions have occurred since 2004.

Volcano climbing program sample

DRAGON AND VOLCANOES
Duration: 10 Days
Grade: Adventure

Day 01 DENPASAR/BALI - MAUMERE/FLORES
Meeting service and then drive to Watublapi, a hamlet about 18 km south east of Maumere locally known for it�s fertile land and rich in exotic tropical plants and fruits. You will be entertained with dances and folksongs accompanied with local dishes and drinks. There is chance for you to comprehend more about Ikat Weaving - the well-known tie-dyeing weaving technique. The Ikat are both as cultural and economical products since the women in the village earn their living selling the Ikat.

Day 02 MAUMERE � Climb Mount Egon - MONI 
Egon (1.703 m) located in the southeastern part of the island of Flores, is a stratovolcano with a single confirmed eruption in 1907. An eruption from 1888-1889 is reported but not confirmed.
Early in the morning drive to the slope of Mt. Egon � the latest erupted volcano in Flores. The last eruption was on February 2004 when thousands of people flee their village but no casualties. Drive till the road end and then walk to the place wherever it possible to get closer to the crater. The climb takes about 4 - 5 hours. Then return to Maumere for lunch. Afternoon free (relaxing on the beach)

Day 03 MAUMERE � MONI  
         
Visit Market of Maumere, Fisherman village, Museum and traditional Lio villages with traditional houses. Lunch en route

Day 04 MONI � KELIMUTU Crater Lakes � ENDE

Kelimutu (1.639 m) is a volcano in central Flores Island containing three summit crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwu Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly blue. Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored, respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling probably fed by subaqueous fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound 1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated two km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively three km to the north and two km to the south.

It is worth to experience the sunrise at Kelimutu - the three colored crater lakes. You will begin your day early in the morning (start at abt 4.00 o�clock). Once you arrive in Kelimutu you will find yourself something like nowhere, incomparable with known told stories - photos or even moving pictures you have seen before. After admiring the nature wonder drive to ENDE you will pass ravines and villages. Ende is a beautiful town surrounded by volcanoes. There are chances photo stops en route, such as at Nduaria Fruit Market. Lunch in ENDE.

Day 05 ENDE � Mount la - BOAWAE
Mount Ia (637 m) is a stratovolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores,  south of the city of Ende. The last erruption was in 1969.                        
Early in the morning transfer to Rate village at the slope of Mount la, which was erupted in 1969, and it is one of the ever-smoking volcanoes on the island. The climb is commenced from the west side of the volcano, it is a bit slippery as to the loose sands scattering along the path. Return then to Ende for lunch. Afternoon drive to Boawae. En route stop at Penggajawa � the blue gravel beach.

Day 06 BOAWAE � Climb Mount Ebulobo - BAJAWA        
Ebulobo (2.124 m)  is a stratovolcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores. It is one of the eversmoking volcanoe in Flores which dominates the landscape of central Flores.
It is one of the most scenic parts of the island. Two cone shaped volcanoes dominated the landscape. Very early in the morning drive to the slope of Mt. Ebulobo until get to the latest village to start trek to the summit of the smoking volcano of Ebulobo. It takes about 4 hrs to reach the peak. Afternoon drive to Bajawa thru Soa area where you will get chance to refresh yourself on the hot water spring.

Day 07 BAJAWA � Visit Crater of Mount Wawo Muda - RUTENG    

In the morning drive to the slope of Wawomuda � a volcano erupted in 2002, which surprised the coffee plantation farmers as the eruption happened right on the coffee plantation. None realized that the dead crater � turned to coffee plantation � is still active.
Take a short trek (easy) for about 2 hour. On return to Bajawa visit to get in touch with the locals. Bajawa is located in the heart of Ngadha ethnic civilization, which is known for the megalithic cultures. There are traditional villages furnished with stone monuments, ancestor worship shrines and Adat Houses. The Hamlets are beautifully settled in the volcanic mountainous area. The most beautiful ones are Wogo and Bena. Afternoon drive to Ruteng. It is another beautiful driving day; you will pass the villages and rain forest. To stretch your legs stop at Crater Lake of Ranamese and follow the trail in the cloud forest.

Day 08 RUTENG � LABUAN BAJO - RINCA

Ranaka (2.100 m), Poco Ranaka is a volcano located in the south-central part of the island of Flores, Indonesia. A new lava dome, named Anak Ranakah (the child of Ranakah) was formed there in 1987.
Ruteng is a small town in the backbone of Flores and neighbor to the Ruteng Nature Conservation Park � the home of Ngkiong � the endemic of singing birds. It is worth to visit park early in the morning to attend the nature�s concert of singing birds (if no rain and strong wind). There is also a newly popped up volcano in the park, erupted in 1987. Take your chance to have a closer look into it. En route to Labuan Bajo stop at Cara village in Cancar area to see the unexposed world wonder � The Lingko � the spider web shaped rice fields. It is probably the only such a rice fields. It is probably the only such a rice field ever exists on earth. Lunch in Labuan Bajo. Afternoon sail to Rinca. Upon arrival start trekking to trace the dragons. On return to harbor sail to Komodo island by night to anchor the boat in Kalong island - the island is home of fruit eating bats. Overnight on board.

Day 09 KOMODO � LABUAN BAJO
It is good to wake up early in the morning to realize that you are just in the middle of nowhere. Calm water of the bay and just enjoy the sound of nature. The fruit eating bats return early in the morning. After sun rise sail to Komodo village. It is the village of the native of Komodo island who believed Komodo is the descendant of their disabled ancestor. Take your chance to visit the village. Proceed then to Loh Liang - the main harbor of Komodo island. Upon arrival take a trek along the trail in the low land forest of Komodo island to trace the Komodo Dragons in it's natural habitat. The trek takes about 2 hours. Then sail to Pantai Merah or Pink Beach to enjoy the crystal clear water of Komodo and it's beautiful underwater life. Late afternoon sail back to Labuanbajo and overnight.

Day 10 LABUAN BAJO � DENPASAR/BALI
Free program in the morning.