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Flores Religious System
Despite it�s early contact with Western Civilization (16th century) the indigenous Flores inhabitants endure to keep their genuine values, believes system and Adat rules up to the present time.The rituals and believe system are still in practice until today. Here are the

The highest being in Ngada is Called Gae Dewa (the mightiest Dewa) who reigns over heaven and earth. In Ngadanese belief, Dewa resides above, Dewa Zeta - symbolizing heaven and Nitu Zale � Symbolizing earth. Dewa Zeta takes care of the earth by giving her fertility by watering her with rain.
Ngadanese know that the highest Dewa can be come what people used to call Riga Telu or one in three (Riga = the branches of the one origin; Telu = three) Riga Telu is also called Saga Telu. Saga is a road with three branches. The meaning of these three branches is the three aspects of the highest being.
The first Dewa is Dewa Tego (the creator), the second is Dewa Pamamese as the mighty welcome, and the third is Dewa Palipate as the Judger of human being before entering the heaven.

RIUNG area
The people in Riung area believes the universe and all the living substance on earth are created by one Supreme God named Mori Kareng or Embo' Muri. He resides high above or eta Lodo Langit (cloud and sky). But in daily life Nitu Mbapu has strong influence onto the ones life. People have to treat Nitu Mbapu well or they will fall sick. Nitu Mbapu stay at the water spring, big trees and or big stones. To calm the negative influence of Nitu Mbapu one have to sacrifice chicken or just made offering in the form of an egg or sirih pinang.

ENDE / LIO area
The Lio people belief in Tua Nggae the almighty creator. Whose place is high up in the sky. His Symbolic residence is Banyan tree (vicus tree) and Bamboo.  Rice (pare) is also considered as sacred plants.

The crocodile is a totem called Mamo (grand father) representing the life of the hungry ancestors or the hungry spirits. The good spirit is called Embu Mamo, and Bupu Bapo. Another harmful spirit is called Fenggere. There are special ceremonies performed to honor each of these spirits. The most well-known ceremonies are those performed to ask for a good harvest such as Ka Poo ceremony�The rice cooked in a hollow piece of Bamboo, Magi Nggua Uta Ceremony�to allow the farmers to pick the young corn and vegetables, Ka Paka Ceremony�when the time of harvesting the rice comes, and Mi Are ceremony�to allow the farmers to make use of the crops.

In any ceremony the right of men is specially considered as Laki Puu. The motto is: Koe Kolu Mulu and Kelimutu (first in planting, first in harvesting). Water plays a very important role in any Adat Ceremony. Lionese respect water which satisfies the thirst, washes the dirt, water the fields to keep them fertile and green, and freshness and cools.

Maumere area
The Sikkanese also believe in the spirit of the earth and the outer space expressed in Nitu Noan. The native also believe in good and evil spirits. Dedung Dodor or Plamming is the name of good spirit whose role is to take care for human beings so they live in peace and Raga Regut or Jaga Papak whose role is to deliver human beings from endemics who bring disaster. Dua Helang is the evil spirits.

Larantuka area
The people of Lamaholot in East Flores belief in Ama Lera Wulan Ina Tana Ekan.  It is a kind of dual concept of creator. Ama Lera Wulan means Father of heavenly Sun and Moon. Ina Tana Ekan means the holy mother earth. The belief system still plays very important role in the society. Up to the present time there still exist the KORKE or the local religion shrine, where they keep contacting their ancestors and Gods for the shake of the happiness and good harvest all the year round through sacrificing in the joyful ceremonies.

According to the local legend the ancestor of the Lamaholot ethnic was the two brother and sisters: Lenurat and Watuele, who was born from a mountain (possibly Mt. Lie Mandiri at the background of Larantuka now). They are wild and staying at the lie Mandiri forest. Their hair was the nest of snakes and lizards, eating wild animals they catch.
People believe in the life after death. To be welcomed by the club of the people in ancestor land the members of the clan have to possess tattoo or otherwise they will be ousted by KEWOKO, the spirits of ancestors. There are no specific tattoo designs; it may be flower or animal like figures or just geometric patterns. The sickness was (is) believed as the suffering person was influenced by MENAKA, the bad spirit. The help of Molang (the Dukun), medicine man or woman is needed. To diagnose the present of MENAKA is easier by sacrificing chicken and right after the chicken killing the Molang will take the intestines, especially liver � to read for.

TONA is the land of ancestors but not every soul can reach heaven. The TUBER or  soul of the newly dead person have to cross the river, if fails the TUBER will become fish as the punishment of their act against the tradition and adat during lifetime. The succeed TUBER who reach TONA becomes KEWOKO. There are TUBERs do not want to go to TONA and they wondering in earth and staying in big trees or huge stones and they become NITUNG. Some of the TUBER become MENAKA or ghost who are dangerous for the living people as the may cause sickness and death.

The land cultivating activities closely related with religious rituals, governed by strict rules to be obeyed and completed with taboos. The involvement of AMA LERA WULAN and INA TANA EKAN and also KEWOKO is highly needed. There is small stone construction in every field (kebun) prepared as the dwelling place of TONO WUJO � the Goddess of Rice. The offerings (by sacrificing) have to be made in every important agricultural event in the field. Blood is an extraordinary fluid, its magical power fertilizes the soil to born the successful harvest to feed and bring happiness to human being as the children of holy mother earth.

Totemism is also exist in the area. Most of the clans have their own story of origin; they may come from animals or plants. The related animals or plants to certain clans are taboo to be killed or eaten for what they called PEMALI. There are people not consuming dog�s meat for they came from this for legs men�s best friend.


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